[CIMIC] [MUSIC]
Introduction to PCs and the Internet

Introduction to PCs and the Internet
What You'll Be Learning About Week 1

What is the Computer Software ?

Purpose: To introduce what the computer software is and to learn some MS windows

Systems Software

manages the resources of a computer system and makes its operations more efficient and effective.




Application Software

- consists of programs written to solve particular user oriented programs (off-the-shelf software)




Programming Languages

- enable people to write software to develop applications.

- enable people to solve a problem that cannot be handled by the off-the-shelf application software.

- Ex: COBOL, BASIC, FORTRAN, PASCAL, C, C++, Assembly language, ..

- Generations of languages

1st generation: Machine language

2nd generation: Assembly language

3rd generation: procedural languages (high-level)

4th generation: non-procedural languages (very high-level)

Telecommunications



Introduction to MS Windows -File Manager and NotePad Editor

Purpose: To acquire basic skills on how to work with Windows 3.1 Operating System and how to prepare a document using NotePad Editor.

Windows 3.1

NOTEPAD



[Definitions] What is the Internet ?

Purpose: To introduce what the Internet is and to learn some basic terms

[History] History of the Internet

Purpose: To learn a bit about the origins of the Internet

[Demographics] Internet Demographics - Who, What, Where


Purpose: To learn who is using the Internet, what they do with it and where they live


[Internet Hosts Chart]

[Hosts] Internet Hosts - Names and Addresses


Purpose: To learn how hosts on the Internet are individually identified

[Definitions] What is the World Wide Web ?

Purpose: To introduce what the World Wide Web (WWW) is and to learn some basic terms


[HyperText Example Image: hyper.gif]

[URLs] Uniform Resource Locators (URLs)

Purpose: To learn how Web sites are identified

URL Examples

  1. http://cimic.rutgers.edu/~holowcza/index.html
          
    HTTP Protocol. Host name is pegasus.rutgers.edu and file is ~holowcza/index.html
  2. ftp://ftp.std.com/obi/William.Butler.Yeats/Yeats/Balloon
          
    FTP Protocol. Host name is ftp.std.com and the file is obi/William.Butler.Yeats/Yeats/Balloon
  3. gopher://stis.nsf.gov
               
    Gopher Protocol. Host name is stis.nsf.gov and the root Gopher menu will be shown.

Some WWW Sites

WWW Site URL
This Page you're reading now http://cimic3.rutgers.edu/music/rich/inter2.html
Rutgers University http://www.rutgers.edu
The White House http://www.whitehouse.gov
Planet Reebok http://www.planetreebok.com
The CIMIC Home page http://cimic3.rutgers.edu
Rich Holowczak's Home Page http://cimic3.rutgers.edu/~holowcza/
CD-World - A Compact Disk mail order company http://cdworld.com
Boyz 2 Men Fan Club http://fanasylum.com/boyz2men/
The NASA Home Page http://www.nasa.gov
The Library of Congress http://www.loc.gov

[Netscape] Basic Use of Netscape

Purpose: To learn the basics of navigating the WWW using the Netscape WWW browser.

Netscape Functions

FunctionHow to Do It
Start the Netscape Program
  1. In the Windows program Manager, Double click on the Netscape group to open it up.
  2. Double click on the Navigator icon.
  3. Netscape will start up and the Rutgers University WWW page will be displayed.
Go to a new Web Page
  1. Pull down the File Menu and choose Open Location
  2. Type in the URL you would like to go to.
  3. Click on the OK Button or Press Enter.
Follow a HyperText Link Click on the underlined words.
Back up to the Previous Page
  • Click on the button labeled "Back" - OR
  • Pull down the Go menu and choose Back
Save a WWW Page to a File
  1. Navigate to a WWW page.
  2. Pull down the File Menu and choose Save
  3. Type in a file name
  4. Click on the OK Button.
Print a WWW Page
  1. Navigate to a WWW page.
  2. Pull down the File Menu and choose Print
  3. Click on the OK Button.
Change Netscape's Preferences
  1. Pull down the Options Menu and choose Preferences

WWW Exercises Some WWW Exercises

Purpose: To become more familiar with working on the Web by performing some browsing tasks.

Try the following tasks on your own

Tips and Tricks Tips and Tricks for the WWW

Purpose: To learn some tips and tricks for working on the Web.

[Topics This Week] What You'll Be Learning About Next...

[Today's Topics] What You'll Be Learning About Today


[WWW Search] WWW Search Engines


Purpose: To learn how to search the WWW using a variety of search engines.

Search engines to try

These search engines and descriptions are from Netscape's search page.
AltaVista http://altavista.digital.com
Offering compact or detailed searches through what the company claims is the largest Web index, Digital Equipment Corporation's Alta Vista can help you find your way through 8 billion words filling 30 million Web pages. It also provides a full-text index of more than 13,000 newsgroups.
InfoSeek http://guide.infoseek.com
Rated the number one search service by PC Computing, Infoseek Guide helps you find what you're looking for on the Net, for free. With each search, you get the most relevant matches, related topics to explore, and timely news and views from popular magazines, TV networks, and the best online experts. Infoseek Guide also makes it easy to find email addresses, stock quotes, company profiles, and more.
Lycos http://a2z.lycos.com
The Lycos A2Z directory takes a new position in the crowded field of Net directories. A2Z starts with the most frequently linked sites, and adds concise, authoritative descriptions. From the best kids' pages to the world's film festivals, to UFOs and virtual psychics, A2Z has it.
YaHoo! http://www.yahoo.com
Arguably the pioneer Internet guide, Yahoo! has been organizing Web content since what seems like the beginning of it all. Updated daily, Yahoo! allows users to both browse and search subject categories. In addition to using Yahoo!'s search functions, check out up-to-the-minute sports scores, weather, headlines, and stock quotes.

WWW Searching Exercises WWW Searching Exercises

Purpose: To become more familiar with using WWW Search Engines.

Try the following search tasks on your own

[Netscape] Netscape Features


Purpose: To learn some features of Netscape application.

FunctionHow to Do It
To Create a new Netscape Window
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose New Web Browser menu item
Notes: You will see that you will have 2 active Netscape windows.
To Open a Specific File on the Netscape Sometimes we want to open an HTML file that does not have an http address.
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose Open File... menu item
  3. Specify the location of the file
As an exercise try to open an HTML file that is stored in c:\ with the file name c:\note.htm
To Save an HTML File that is being viewed on Netscape Window Sometimes we want to save interesting HTML file as our own file for future use.
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose New Web Browser menu item
  3. Specify the complete name of the file you like the HTML page to be saved into
As an exercise. Try to save the current page of today's note into your disckette. And give it the name A:\notes.htm
To preview an HTML printed page on Screen Sometimes we want to preview the printed page on the screen before we send the page to the printer.
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose Print Preview menu item
  3. Use the available buttons to print, to close, to zoom or others
As an exercise. Print the current page that you are on now.
To print an HTML page without previewing it first on the screen
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose Print... menu item
  3. Specify the number of copy you want to have
  4. Press enter to start printing
To open an HTML page when you know its URL address
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose Open Location... menu item
You can also do the same through editing the URL field located on top of the Netscape window. As an exercise try to open Rutgers Homepage with URL : www.rutgers.edu
To close the current Netscape window
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose Close menu item
To exit from the Netscape application
  1. Click on the File Menu
  2. Choose Exit menu item
To go back to the previously viewed page
  1. Click on the Go Menu
  2. Choose Back menu item
You can also do the same through clicking the Back button on top of the Netcape window.
To display the next page
  1. Click on the Go Menu
  2. Choose Forward menu item
You can also do the same through clicking the Forward button on top of the Netcape window. Note: You need to go Back at least once before you can Forward
To go to or display the home page
  1. Click on the Go Menu
  2. Choose Home menu item
You can also do the same through clicking the Home button on top of the Netcape window. Note: Everytime you start Nestcape application, it automatically display the home page first.
To change the home page default
  1. Click on the Option Menu
  2. Choose General Preferences... menu item
  3. Type in the URL for the new home page
As an exercise try to use Rutgers page: www.rutgers.edu as our default home page.
Look at the "Source Code" for an HTML page
  1. Navigate to a Web page that interests you.
  2. Pull down the View menu and choose the View Source menu item.
  3. A new window will appear with the HTML source listed.
  4. Use the scroll bars to scroll through the page.
  5. You can also copy the code or a particularly interesting piece of code to the Windows clipboard by highlighting the words with the mouse (Click and drag) and then pressing ^C to "Copy" the code to the Windows clipboard.
  6. You can then switch to a Notepad editor, for example, and press ^V to "Paste" the code in your own HTML page.
Saving an Image to a file
  1. It is also possible to save an Image to a file. This is handy for "borrowing" icons and background images from various Web sites for inclusion into your Web pages.
  2. Navigate to a Web page that interests you.
  3. Click on the image with the Right mouse button. A menu will appear.
  4. Choose the Save This Image As option from the menu.
  5. A dialog box will appear asking you for a file name for the image. In many cases, a file name will already be suggested.
  6. Type the file name, including any drive letter or directories you'd like to place it in. For example, if the floppy drive is the A: drive:
    A:\MYIMAGE.GIF
  7. Note you must follow the DOS file name convention of 8 letters, a period and then a three letter extension. The extension for GIF files is typically .GIF and the extension for JPEG files is typically .JPG
Changing the Displayed Font Size
  1. Pull down the Options menu and select the General Preferences menu item.
  2. Click once on the "Fonts" tab along the top of the dialog box.
  3. There are two fonts that you can change - the proportional font and the fixed font.
    • This is Proportional
    • This is Fixed Font
  4. Click on the "Choose Font" button next to the style font you would like to change (Proportional or fixed). A "Choose Base Font" dialog box will appear.
  5. Change the "Size" in the dialog box.
  6. Click on the "OK" button to confirm the font choice.
  7. Click on the "OK" button to close the Preferences dialog box.
  8. The screen will re-draw.
Adding a URL to the Bookmark file When browsing around the Web, you will come across Web sites that you would like to re-visit from time to time. Most Web browsers, including Netscape, can create a "Bookmark" for later reference. To create a bookmark:
  1. Navigate to a Web page of interest.
  2. Pull down the Bookmarks menu and choose Add Bookmark.
  3. The URL of the Web site will be added to the Bookmarks menu.
To go to a page marked with a book mark, pull down the Bookmarks menu and choose the Web site on the menu. Please Note: In the computer lab environment, the bookmarks may be automatically cleared at the end of each session.
Deleting a bookmark
  1. Go to Bookmarks menu
  2. Choose Go to Bookmarks menu item. You will see a different window (the bookmark window).
  3. With your mouse select on the bookmark you want to delete
  4. Pull down the Edit menu
  5. Select Delete menu item
  6. Exit the bookmark window by double-clicking on the small box at the upper-left corner of the bookmark window or by chossing File menu and choose Exit menu item.
To do a search on the internet
  1. Go to Directory menu
  2. Choose Internet Search menu item.
Here you can choose any of the available search engines by clicking the search engine before carrying any search. As an exercise click the Yahoo! search engine and search for any subject related to Biology.

Try the following exercise

[Topics This Week] What You'll Be Learning About Next...



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Last update: July 7, 1997
Source provided by Rich Holowczak
Edited by Wei-Kuang Huang